Facts & figures

Indicators: Environment

XLS

Spending on environmental protection, safety and health

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

€ million

 

2013

 

2014

 

2015

 

20161

1

Includes Sigma-Aldrich as of 2016

Spending

 

142

 

145

 

148

 

189

These figures include both investments in as well as internal and external spending on waste and wastewater management, water, occupational safety, fire protection, noise reduction, air pollution prevention, decontamination, preservation of nature and the landscape, climate impact mitigation, and energy efficiency. We do not further break down our spending on environmental protection by type.

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Total greenhouse gas emissions (Scope 1 and 2 of the GHG Protocol)1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

metric kilotons

 

20062

 

2013

 

2014

 

2015

 

2016

1

In line with the Greenhouse Gas Protocol, for all previous years (up to the 2006 baseline) the greenhouse gas emissions have been calculated based on the current corporate structure of the reporting year and retroactively adjusted for acquisitions (e.g. Sigma-Aldrich in 2015) or divestments of (parts of) companies, or for changes in emission factors (portfolio-adjusted).

2

Baseline for our emission targets is 2006.

3

eq = equivalent

Total CO2eq3 emissions

 

790

 

784

 

736

 

729

 

715

Thereof

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

direct CO2eq emissions

 

378

 

417

 

390

 

393

 

386

indirect CO2eq emissions

 

412

 

367

 

346

 

336

 

329

Biogenic CO2 emissions

 

6

 

6

 

11

 

54

 

56

The increase in biogenic carbon emissions was caused by the biomass power plants that were commissioned in Goa, India, and Jaffrey, New Hampshire (USA) at the end of 2014.

Our response to the Carbon Disclosure Project contains a detailed description of our calculation methods.

We have included the following gases in our calculation of direct and indirect CO2eq emissions:

  • Direct CO2 emissions: CO2, HFCs, PFCs; CH4/N2O negligible; SF6/NF3 not available.
  • Indirect CO2 emissions: CO2.

In 2016, we emitted 0.048 kg of CO2eq per euro of net sales.

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Other relevant indirect greenhouse gas emissions (Scope 3 of the GHG Protocol)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2013

 

2014

 

2015

 

20162

1

eq = equivalent

2

Includes Sigma-Aldrich as of 2016

3

This figure covers roughly 80% - 85% of the employees of the Group because the data for the employees of Sigma-Aldrich, acquired in November 2015, are only partially available.

4

Already covered under Scope 1/2 emissions

5

Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany produces a huge variety of intermediate products for various purposes. Due to their many applications and our customer structure, the associated GHG emissions cannot be tracked in a reasonable fashion.

Total gross other indirect emissions (metric kilotons CO2eq1)

 

64

 

319

 

349

 

426

Fuel- and energy-related emissions, not included in Scope 1 or 2 (category 3)

 

not recorded

 

97

 

95

 

127

Waste generated in operations (category 5)

 

not recorded

 

96

 

123

 

127

Business travel - air travel (category 6)

 

63

 

74

 

79

 

1033

Business travel - rail travel (category 6)

 

0.05

 

0.02

 

0.02

 

0.02

Business travel - rental car travel (category 6)

 

1.3

 

1.2

 

1.1

 

0.6

Employee commuting (category 7)

 

not recorded

 

51

 

51

 

68

Upstream leased assets (category 8)

 

not recorded

 

04

 

04

 

04

Processing of sold products (category 10)

 

not recorded

 

05

 

05

 

05

Downstream leased assets (category 13)

 

not recorded

 

0

 

0

 

0

Franchises (category 14)

 

not recorded

 

0

 

0

 

0

No data is available for Scope 3 categories not listed above. Their relevance to our company is assessed in the Scope 3 document.

Biogenic emissions (Scope 3), if present, are not being recorded.

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Emissions of ozone-depleting substances

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

metric tons

 

20131

 

2014

 

2015

 

2016

1

Includes Sigma-Aldrich from 2013 onwards

2

CFC-11eq is a unit of measure used to compare the potential of various substances to deplete the ozone. Reference figure 1 indicates the potential of CFC-11 to cause the depletion of the ozone layer.

Total emissions of ozone-depleting substances

 

2.5

 

2.0

 

2.5

 

2.2

CFC-11eq2

 

0.1

 

0.1

 

0.1

 

0.1

Substances included: R-12, R-22, R-141b, R-402a, R-409a, R-401a.

Source for the emission factors: Montreal Protocol.

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Other air emissions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

metric kilotons

 

2013

 

2014

 

2015

 

20161

1

Includes Sigma-Aldrich as of 2016

2

Figure retroactively adjusted.

Volatile organic compounds (VOC)

 

0.2

 

0.3

 

0.3

 

0.3

Nitrogen oxide

 

0.2

 

0.2

 

0.32

 

0.2

Sulfur dioxide

 

0.02

 

0.02

 

0.05

 

0.05

Dust

 

0.01

 

0.02

 

0.06

 

0.02

The VOC, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, and dust emissions reported here are attributable to production activities as well as energy generation. These figures do not include emissions from vehicles. Emissions are determined partially based on measurements and partially based on calculations or estimates. Only some sites are required to measure individual parameters.

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Transport of finished goods, by means of transportation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20131

 

20141

 

20151

 

20162

1

The figures for 2013 through 2015 pertain to goods shipped by our Darmstadt, Gernsheim and Hohenbrunn sites in Germany (excluding Sigma-Aldrich).

2

From 2016 on, the figures contain the volumes of the biggest global distribution centers of our Healthcare, Life Science and Performance Materials business sectors. These figures pertain to the total weight of transported products and indicate the primary means of transport (including Sigma-Aldrich).

% Truck

 

56

 

56

 

53

 

71

% Boat

 

37

 

38

 

41

 

18

% Airplane

 

7

 

6

 

6

 

11

In shipping finished goods from our production sites to the local warehouses of our subsidiaries, we have been working to reduce the use of air shipping in favor of sea freight. This change aims to both reduce costs as well as lower transport-related CO2 emissions.

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Energy consumption1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In GWh

 

2013

 

2014

 

2015

 

2016

1

In line with the Greenhouse Gas Protocol, for all previous years (up to the 2006 baseline) the energy consumption has been calculated based on the current corporate structure of the reporting year and retroactively adjusted for acquisitions or divestments of (parts of) companies, or for changes in emission factors (portfolio-adjusted).

2

Light and heavy fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), diesel and gasoline

Total energy consumption

 

2,108

 

2,158

 

2,256

 

2,253

Direct energy consumption

 

1,286

 

1,354

 

1,451

 

1,443

Natural gas

 

1,157

 

1,212

 

1,212

 

1,272

Liquid fossil fuels2

 

114

 

115

 

104

 

30

Biomass and self-generated renewable energy

 

15

 

27

 

135

 

141

Indirect energy consumption

 

822

 

804

 

805

 

810

Electricity

 

743

 

707

 

709

 

715

Steam, heat, cold

 

79

 

97

 

96

 

95

Total energy sold

 

0.4

 

0.6

 

0.5

 

0.5

Electricity

 

0.4

 

0.6

 

0.5

 

0.5

Steam, heat, cold

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In TJ

 

2013

 

2014

 

2015

 

2016

Total energy consumption

 

7,589

 

7,769

 

8,122

 

8,111

Direct energy consumption

 

4,630

 

4,874

 

5,224

 

5,195

Natural gas

 

4,165

 

4,363

 

4,363

 

4,579

Liquid fossil fuels2

 

410

 

414

 

374

 

108

Biomass and self-generated renewable energy

 

54

 

97

 

486

 

508

Indirect energy consumption

 

2,959

 

2,894

 

2,898

 

2,916

Electricity

 

2,675

 

2,545

 

2,552

 

2,574

Steam, heat, cold

 

284

 

349

 

346

 

342

Total energy sold

 

1

 

2

 

2

 

2

Electricity

 

1

 

2

 

2

 

2

Steam, heat, cold

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0

At our sites in Billerica (MA, USA), Bedford (MA, USA), Molsheim (France), Tel Aviv (Israel), Rome (Italy), Guatemala City (Guatemala), Shizuoka-ken (Japan), and Shanghai (China), we use photovoltaics to produce power. Since 2015, the increase in biomass and self-generated renewable energy consumption has been attributable to the biomass power plants that were commissioned in Goa, India, and Jaffrey (NH, USA) in 2014.

The reduction in liquid fossil fuel consumption primarily stems from a project at our Onahama site in Japan that switched energy generation from kerosene to natural gas.

We only record purchased secondary energy – this is primarily electricity and, to a lesser extent, heat/steam/cold. Details on the local energy mix, including the respective percentage of primary energy, renewable energy, etc. are not available. Data on local energy efficiency in electricity or heat generation are not available either. Our production sites are located in countries with a widely varying energy mix.

Our Darmstadt and Gernsheim sites in Germany consume the most energy, representing 29% of our Group-wide total. At these sites, fossil energy (coal, gas, etc.) accounts for approx. 53%, nuclear energy approx. 15% and renewable energies approx. 32% of the energy mix. Renewable energies account for a higher share of electricity generation at production sites in Switzerland, with nuclear energy taking the lead in France. Based on an estimated global energy efficiency of 37% for the conversion and distribution of generated electricity, this results in a primary energy consumption of 1,931 GWh for 2016. Based on an estimated global energy efficiency of 85% for heat/steam/cold, this results in a primary energy consumption of 112 GWh for 2016. This yields a total primary energy consumption of 2,043 GWh for 2016. The calculation is based on factors stated in the “Manual for energy management in practice - Systematically reducing energy costs” published by DENA, 12/2012.

In 2016, our company's energy intensity relative to net sales totaled 0.150 kWh/€ compared to 0.134 kWh/€ in 2015.

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Water consumption

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

millions of m3

 

2013

 

2014

 

20151

 

2016

1

Includes Sigma-Aldrich as of 2015

2

Figure retroactively adjusted.

Total water consumption

 

9.6

 

11.1

 

13.6

 

13.7

Surface water (rivers, lakes)

 

0.82

 

1.22

 

1.22

 

1.2

Groundwater

 

5.4

 

6.3

 

7.02

 

7.2

Drinking water (from local suppliers)

 

3.42

 

3.62

 

5.42

 

5.3

Rain water and other sources

 

0.01

 

0.012

 

0.012

 

0.01

These figures do not include the ground water that we use for safety measures at our Gernsheim site in Germany. Here, the water is fed back directly into natural circulation.

 

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Water reused

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

millions of m3

 

2013

 

2014

 

20151

 

2016

1

Includes Sigma-Aldrich as of 2015

Water reused

 

16.6

 

16.0

 

23.0

 

22.7

The increase in reused water in 2015 is attributable to the recirculating cooling system that went online at our facility in Darmstadt, Germany. This system provides recirculating cooling water to both our new co-generation unit as well as our new cold and compressed air generator. The recirculating cooling system largely accounts for the amount of reused water as it allows the water to be re-utilized multiple times. The volume of reused water is thus greater than the total volume of consumed water.

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Wastewater volume and quality

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2013

 

2014

 

20151

 

2016

1

Includes Sigma-Aldrich as of 2015

2

Figures retroactively adjusted.

Total wastewater volume (millions of m3)

 

8.6

 

10.1

 

11.8

 

12.1

Chemical oxygen demand (metric tons of O2)

 

756

 

1,319

 

1,933

 

1,535

Phosphorous (metric tons)

 

7

 

10

 

10

 

12

Nitrogen (metric tons)

 

77

 

81

 

330

 

303

Zinc (kg)

 

4062

 

4102

 

4982

 

451

Chromium (kg)

 

23

 

36

 

42

 

34

Copper (kg)

 

36

 

34

 

84

 

53

Nickel (kg)

 

110

 

128

 

128

 

124

Lead (kg)

 

42

 

55

 

54

 

56

Cadmium (kg)

 

10

 

10

 

13

 

11

Mercury (kg)

 

1

 

1

 

2

 

2

Arsenic (kg)

 

4

 

4

 

5

 

4

The wastewater volume includes indirect discharge into both public and company-owned wastewater treatment plants, as well as direct discharge (such as rainwater and cooling water).

The wastewater treatment plant at our Gernsheim, Germany site also treats wastewater from the neighboring municipality of Biebesheim. The communal wastewater from Biebesheim is included in the wastewater volume as well as in the emissions stated in the table.

Emissions are determined partially based on measurements and partially based on calculations or estimates. Only some sites are required to measure individual parameters.

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Hazardous and non-hazardous waste

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

metric kilotons

 

2013

 

2014

 

20151

 

2016

1

Includes Sigma-Aldrich as of 2015

2

Disposed = incineration (without energy recovery) and landfill

3

Disposed = incineration (without energy recovery) and material recycling

Total waste

 

161

 

228

 

317

 

254

Hazardous waste disposed2

 

37

 

53

 

55

 

50

Non-hazardous waste disposed2

 

31

 

55

 

35

 

44

Hazardous waste recycled3

 

50

 

49

 

73

 

75

Non-hazardous waste recycled3

 

43

 

71

 

154

 

85

The increase in “non-hazardous waste recycled” in 2015 can be attributed to the sharp rise in construction, excavation and demolition waste. Construction, excavation and demolition waste accounted for 49% of our waste in 2015 and 30% in 2016.

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Exported/Imported hazardous waste

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

metric kilotons

 

2013

 

2014

 

20151

 

2016

1

Includes Sigma-Aldrich as of 2015

2

Disposal within the EU and the United States.

3

As part of the return system for our cell tests, these kits are brought to our Gernsheim site in Germany for proper disposal.

Exported2

 

7.1

 

9.6

 

5.1

 

4.6

Imported3

 

0.01

 

0.003

 

0.01

 

0.01

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Waste by disposal method

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2013

 

2014

 

20151

 

2016

1

Includes Sigma-Aldrich as of 2015

Total waste (metric kilotons)

 

161

 

228

 

317

 

254

Disposed waste (metric kilotons)

 

67

 

108

 

90

 

94

Landfilled waste (metric kilotons)

 

13

 

37

 

16

 

15

Incinerated waste (metric kilotons)

 

54

 

71

 

74

 

79

Recycled waste (metric kilotons)

 

94

 

120

 

227

 

160

Material recycling (metric kilotons)

 

69

 

93

 

195

 

128

Waste-to-energy (metric kilotons)

 

25

 

27

 

32

 

32

Recycling rate (%)

 

58

 

53

 

72

 

63

As in previous years, the total waste generated continues to be heavily influenced by the waste from construction and remodeling activities. Construction, excavation and demolition waste accounted for 49% of our waste in 2015 and 30% in 2016. In 2015, around 124 metric kilotons of construction, excavation and demolition waste was recycled, with roughly 53 metric kilotons recycled in 2016.

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Significant spills

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2013

 

2014

 

20151

 

2016

1

Includes Sigma-Aldrich as of 2015

Total number of significant spills

 

0

 

0

 

0

 

0